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Adjacency Matrix is used to represent a graph. We can represent directed as well as undirected graphs using adjacency matrices. Following are the key properties of an Adjacency matrix.

An Adjacency Matrix A[V][V] is a 2D array of size V × V where V is the number of vertices in a undirected graph.

If there is an edge between V

_{x}to V_{y}then the value of A[V_{x}][V_{y}] = 1 and A[V_{y}][V_{x}]=1, otherwise the value will be zero.For a directed graph, if there is an edge between V

_{x}to V_{y}, then the value of A[V_{x}][V_{y}]=1, otherwise the value will be zero.

**Adjacency Matrix of an Undirected Graph**

Let us consider the following undirected graph and construct the adjacency matrix −

Adjacency matrix of the above undirected graph will be −

a | b | c | d | |

a | 0 | 1 | 1 | 0 |

b | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 |

c | 1 | 1 | 0 | 1 |

d | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 |

**Adjacency Matrix of a Directed Graph**

Let us consider the following directed graph and construct its adjacency matrix −

Adjacency matrix of the above directed graph will be −

a | b | c | d | |

a | 0 | 1 | 1 | 0 |

b | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 |

c | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 |

d | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |

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